The knee is a hinge joint and is the largest in the human body. It is made up of the femur and tibia, with a smaller fibula located to the outer aspect (pictured below, click to make larger).
The fibula functions largely as an attachment point for ligaments. The thigh musculature consists of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the lower leg contains the popliteus and gastrocnemius muscles. Flexible meniscus fibro-cartilage supports the curved femoral faces on the relatively flat tibial plateau surfaces (pictured below, click to make larger).
Tougher ligaments attach the two together and consist of the outer collaterals (medial and lateral ligaments) and the inner cruciates (anterior and posterior cruciates). (Pictured below, click to make larger). Continue Reading »
Breast cancer continues to be one of the most common cancers in women and maintains a high profile both in the media and in women’s minds. While it is certainly a scary diagnosis, it is exciting how much progress has been made in the treatment of breast cancer in recent years.
The first major surgical advances came in the 1970s when research showed there was the same survival rate for women who underwent breast preservation using lumpectomy (surgical removal of tumor[s] in the breast) and radiation, as there was for women who had a mastectomy (complete removal of the breast).
This discovery, along with rapid developments in breast reconstruction, opened a whole new avenue of surgical options for women. No longer were women faced with a body-altering mastectomy as their only choice of treatment. Breast biopsies also started to become to become less invasive, as the need for an operating room procedure was steadily replaced by image-guided needle biopsies. Continue Reading »